A. Remove flaws in Monitoring
1.High volume samples
MEASURE: Particulate matter like PM 2.5 and PM 10
FLAWS: Competition among instrument makers and component suppliers is resulting un undercutting. Given lack of quality control, it is doubtful if these machines measure what they claim to
2. Wet Chemistry
MEASURE: Gases like So2, etc
FLAWS: Competition resulting in undercutting. some bids below cost of experiment itself
3. Continuous Monitoring
MEASURE: All pollutants
FLAWS: State pollution control boards and companies tweak calibration to ensure air quality numbers stay within permissible limits
B. Suggestions for Altering cropping pattern to prevent stubble burning
Given the electoral clout of farmers in Haryana and Punjab, a solution to the problem is not easy. Three corrections need to be effected in parallel.
Socio economic changes
1. First, the MSP for rice needs to increase each year at a rate slower than that of general inflation.
2. Second, power tariffs need to increase. Power use must be metered.
3. Third, a gradual redirection of FCI’s rice procurement towards eastern states which are better endowed with
4. Use of bailor, that converts straw into bundles manually and can be removed thereafter.
5. Happy Seeder developed by the Punjab Agricultural University (PAU). The tractor-operated machine, allows wheat seeds to be directly drilled in fields even with standing stubble or loose straw from combine-harvested paddy, is yet to find broad acceptance among farmers. With a Happy Seeder, the farmer can actually harvest paddy and plant wheat the same day, without the need for clearing the left-over stubble.
Long term solutions
1. Paddy straw can be effectively used for power generation. This will go a long way towards overcoming the problem of disposal of crop residues and power deficit in the region.
2. There is great potential for making investments in paddy straw-based power plants which can help avoid stubble burning to a large extent and also create employment opportunities.
3. Incorporation of crop residues in the soil can improve soil moisture and help activate the growth of soil microorganisms for better plant growth. However, suitable machinery for collection, chopping and in situ incorporation of straw is required.
4. Further, initiatives can also be made to convert the removed residues into enriched organic manure through composting.
5. Presently, a limited quantity of paddy straw is used for cardboard making and in packing industries and paper mills. However, new opportunities for industrial use — such as extraction of yeast protein — can be explored.
6. Develop rice varieties that are both rich in grain yield and high in straw quality. Use of such dual-purpose rice varieties will help to maintain sustainability.
C. Manage Dust Particles-Long term measure
- The biggest problem in Delhi is road dust, not vehicles. This is where the maximum focus is needed. The road-vacuuming plan can make by far the biggest contribution to pollution reduction. But it needs some deep ancillary thinking. IF a thousand road vacuumers operate on Delhi’s streets, they will suck up literally thousands of tonnes of dust every month. This will create a problem of their disposal. Delhi’s landfills are already overfilled. Besides, dust put in landfills will blow right back on to the streets, defeating the whole point of vacuuming. Converting dust into sand will ease pollution, solve the problem of dust of dust dumping, reduce illegal sand mining, lower sand price and boost the construction industry. The best solution is converting them into bricks.
- Revitalise water bodies like lakes, rivers and lakes so that they can absorb high temperature and some gaseous elemnts as well.
- Reforetation, Afforestaion drive along roadsides and along the medians
- Cover landfills with vegetation
- Manage Dust Particles-Immediate Measures
- Close Badarpur plant
- Stop construction activity
- Stop manual sweeping
- Sprinkle water over roads to allow dust to settle
- Close schools to prevent children’s exposure.
- Ban diesel vehicles older than 10 years
D. Mitigation measures:
Use of Green plants indoor:
Where: Useful in kitchens with gas stoves
Why: Controls carbon monoxide, xylene
SANSEVIERIA, OR MOTHER-IN LAW’S TONGUE
Where: Potted plant, can be put in balcony or near the window
Why: Helps absorb carbon monoxide
Where: Best for hanging baskets, grows easily in bright to medium light
Why: Reduces formaldehyde, xylene
Where: Can be kept anywhere, but especially useful in carpeted rooms or those with freshly painted furniture
Why: Reduces negative impact of xylene and formaldehyde
Where: Best for hanging baskets, effective in freshly painted rooms, or those with computers, printers, fax machines, and at petrol stations
Why: Acts against benzene, formaldehyde, xylene
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: Restructure Command structure to Issue direction Cover exposed areas of soil with vegetation to Community Groups and RWA